EXW – Ex Works
EXW means Ex Works and is followed by a named place. EXW means the seller's responsibility is to make the goods available at the seller's premises. The seller is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer, who then bears the full cost involved in bringing the goods from there to the desired destination.
FOB – Free On Board
With FOB the goods are placed on board the ship by the seller at a port of shipment named in the sales agreement. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods is transferred to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail, i.e. off the dock and placed on the ship. The seller pays the cost of loading the goods.
FCA – Free Carrier
FCA means the seller fulfills its obligation to deliver when it has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose within the place or range stipulated where the carrier shall take the goods into its charge.
FAS – Free Alongside Ship
FAS means the seller is responsible for the cost of transporting and delivering goods alongside a vessel in a port in his country. As the buyer has responsibility for export clearance, it is not a practical incoterm for U.S. exports. FAS should be used only for ocean shipments since risk and responsibility shift from seller to buyer when the goods are placed within the reach of the ship's crane.
CFR - Cost And Freight
CFR requires the seller to pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named destination, but the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any cost increases, are transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. Insurance is the buyer's responsibility.
CIF - Cost, Insurance And Freight
CIF means Cost, Insurance and Freight. CIF is similar to CFR with the additional requirement that the seller purchases insurance against the risk of loss or damage to goods. The seller must pay the premium. Insurance is important in international shipping, more than domestic US shipping, because U.S. laws generally hold a common carrier to be liable for lost or damaged goods.
CPT – Carriage Paid To
CPT means that the seller must pay the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss or damage to the goods and any cost increases transfers from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered to the custody of the first carrier, and not at the ship's rail.
CIP - Carriage And Insurance Paid To
CIP has the same incoterm meaning as CPT, but in addition the seller pays for the insurance against loss of damage.
DAF – Delivered At Frontier
DAF means that the seller’s responsibility is complete when the goods have arrived at the frontier but before the customs border of the country named in the sales contract. This buyer is responsible for the cost of the goods to clear customs.
DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid
The seller has to bear the costs involved in shipping the goods as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The buyer pays the duty and has to pay any additional costs caused by its failure to clear the goods for import in time.
DDP - Delivered Duty Paid
The seller has to pay the costs involved in shipping the goods as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The seller pays the duty and the buyer has to pay any additional costs caused by its failure to clear the goods for import in time. DDP should not be used if the seller is unable to obtain an import license.